According to health experts, all three COVID-19 vaccines on the U.S. market have high efficacy rates, but no vaccine is a 100% guarantee. When someone gets sick despite being vaccinated against an illness, they are considered a breakthrough case.
The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services states that a breakthrough infection meets the following criteria:
—Positive COVID-19 test at least 14 days past completion of vaccination (1 dose for Janssen; 2 doses for Moderna and Pfizer)
—No previous positive test in 45 days beforehand